Union of the Fatherland.
The Justicialista Party is part of the Peronist Movement, a political current founded by Juan Domingo Perón and María Eva Duarte that includes unions, social movements, grassroots organizations and other groups.
With the formation of various party alliances, Peronism triumphed in eight presidential elections. The first ones he ran for, with Juan Perón as a candidate, in 1946 and his subsequent re-election in 1952.
After having been banned and exiled, he obtained the presidency for the third time in 1973 and died in office in 1974. Subsequently, the following were elected presidents by Peronism: Carlos Menem (1989 and 1995), Néstor Kirchner (2003) and Cristina Fernández ( 2007 and 2011).
Peronism was only defeated in democratic elections three times: 1983 (Raúl Alfonsín), 1999 (Fernando De la Rúa) and 2015 (Mauricio Macri). They also held the presidency of the Nation: María Estela Martínez (in 1974 due to the death of Juan Perón), Adolfo Rodríguez Saá (in 2001 due to the resignation of Fernando De la Rúa) and Eduardo Duhalde (in 2002 due to the resignation of Rodríguez Saá).
Two Peronist presidents were overthrown by military-led coups: Juan Perón in 1955 and María Estela Martínez in 1976. In both cases, all Peronist expressions were prohibited, and their leaders and militants were repressed, assassinated, and even disappeared.
In the first stage of the ban, which lasted 18 years, Peronism organized itself into the "Peronist Resistance" taking refuge in the action of unions and grassroots organizations. At this stage he was denied participation in two presidential elections: 1958 (Arturo Frondizi) and 1963 (Arturo Illia). In the second stage, which began in 1976, the repression worsened and was extended to other non-Peronist political forces.
With the restoration of democracy in 1983, Peronism lost a national election for the first time. But he quickly regained his predominance and maintained a majority in both chambers of the National Congress for long periods, especially in the Senate. In addition, he obtained victories in most of the provincial elections.
Currently, 14 provinces are governed by Peronists and half (36) of the national senators and more than a third (91) of the national deputies identify with this political force.
The governing bodies of the PJ are the National Council and the National Congress. The first is made up of a board of directors of 24 members, the president, five vice-presidents and 22 secretaries. Governors, presidents of provincial PJ and parliamentary blocs of the National Congress also participate. For its part, the National Congress is the "supreme body and directly represents party sovereignty," and is made up of congressmen from all over the country. These bodies are joined by a National Electoral Board, disciplinary courts and an Oversight Commission.
Likewise, the PJ recognizes the basic units distributed throughout the Argentine territory as its "primary organism." Sometimes the Party forms specific commissions such as the current Political Action Commission, made up of political and union leaders from different internal sectors of Peronism and created to promote unity in the 2019 presidential elections.
The ideas promoted by Peronism are summarized in three "flags": political sovereignty, economic independence and social justice. Peronist ideals also reflect, among other values: the centrality of work and production; the organization of workers to defend their rights and interests and solidarity in the financing of social protections; the equal dignity of all people without any distinction based on social class, ethnicity, gender, age or nationality; the promotion of the national industry; freedom and responsibility of people; the balance between the rights of individuals and the rights of society; the social function of private property, capital and economic activity; regional integration; concertation and planning of government action; the participation of the people in the political, social and economic organizations of the community; federalism and equity among the provinces; equity in access to public services, health, education, housing and tourism; the promotion of science, technology and national culture; protection of the rights of workers, families, children and the elderly; and more recently: environmental sustainability, human rights, and gender parity and diversity. housing and tourism; the promotion of science, technology and national culture; protection of the rights of workers, families, children and the elderly; and more recently: environmental sustainability, human rights, and gender parity and diversity. housing and tourism; the promotion of science, technology and national culture; protection of the rights of workers, families, children and the elderly; and more recently: environmental sustainability, human rights, and gender parity and diversity.
Source Link: https://www.pj.org.ar/